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the normal shedding from a plant of an organ that is mature or aged,domatia adapted to provide shelter to beneficial mites.a fruit, or group of fruits derived from one flower, in which the conspicuous, fleshy portion develops from the receptacle and is shed with the true fruit(s) attached.continuing to increase in size after maturity, as the calyx of some plants after flowering.a dry, indehiscent fruit formed from a superior ovary of one carpel and containing one seed which is free from the pericarp (often applied, less correctly, to the one-seeded fruits of Asteraceae).a slender, stiff, needle-like prickle. adj.finely scored on the surface, as if scratched by a pin.arising or developing in a longitudinal sequence beginning at the base and proceeding towards the apex.facing towards the apex., producing leaves below the inflorescence,prickly.a long, tapering point.tapering gradually to a protracted point.terminating in a distinct but not protracted point, the converging edges separated by an angle less than 90 degrees.fused to an organ of a different kind,arising in abnormal positions,introduced to an area recently.tissue incorporating large, gas-filled spaces interspersed with the cells in a characteristic pattern.the arrangement of sepals and petals or their lobes in an unexpanded flower bud.a cluster of fruits formed from the free carpels of one flower.=sausage-shaped., inserted alternately with the tepals.pitted or honeycombed on the surface.fusion to form a network,applied to inflorescences, parts of inflorescences or to axes that do not end in a flower, and in which growth does not continue beyond the flowering region,having bisexual flowers and male flowers, on separate plants.the stamens of one flower collectively.a stalk bearing both the androecium and gynoecium of a flower above the level of insertion of the perianth.having male and female flowers in the same inflorescence.having bisexual and male flowers, on the same plant.a stalk bearing the androecium.pollinated by wind.a seed-bearing plant whose ovules, and hence seeds, develop within an enclosed ovary.with narrow partitions,a plant whose life span ends within one year after germination.arranged in or forming a ring.raised fleshy tissue, usually in a ring, on the corolla around the base of the staminal column but not closely adnate to it.a ring;the pollen-bearing part of a stamen.the fertile organ of a male gametophyte or the male organ of a bisexual gametophyte, in which male gametes are formed.the time of opening of a flower.a false fruit consisting of the true fruit and the base of the perianth, as in Nyctaginaceae.inserted in front of the petals; opposite the petals.inserted in front of the sepals; opposite the sepals.bent, and pointing towards the apex.without petals.a short, abrupt, flexible point, adj.a plant that produces viable seed without fertilisation.a structure arising from the surface or extending beyond the tip of another structure.pressed closely against a surface (or another organ) but not united with it.living in or on water for all or a substantial part of the life span (generally restricted to fresh/inland waters).resembling a tree (applied to non-woody plants attaining tree height and to shrubs tending to become tree-like in size).the fertile organ of a female gametophyte or the female organ of a bisexual gametophyte, in which female gametophytes are formed.curved like a bow.a space between the threads of a net;a structure partly or wholly covering the testa of a seed and formed by expansion of the funicle. adj.having a stiff, bristle-like awn or tip.having a small awn.a segment of a jointed stem, or of a fruit with constrictions between the seeds.jointed; having joints where separation may occur naturally;growing erect after an oblique or semi-horizontal beginning.not forming part of a cycle which involves fertilisation and meiosis.slightly rough to the touch.tapering gradually.an ear-shaped appendage at the base of a leaf, leaflet or corolla lobe. adj., derived and unique to a given taxon or monophyletic group.independent of other organisms in respect of organic nutrition; able to fix carbon dioxide, by photosynthesis, to form carbohydrates.applied to inflorescences, parts of inflorescences or to axes that do not end in a flower, and in which growth continues beyond the flowering region,a bristle-like appendage,the angle between a leaf or bract and the axis bearing it. adj.on an axis;a stem, (commonly used for the main stem of a whole plant or of an inflorescence).

berry-like;a trichome with terminal or lateral retrorse projections, each projection being a barb.short, straight, stiff hairs or barbs.inat the base;attached at or by the base,developing, in sequence, from the apex towards the base.facing towards the base., producing no leaves (but sometimes some bracts) below the inflorescence,a prominent terminal projection, especially of a carpel or fruit.a fleshy or pulpy indehiscent fruit with the seed(s) embedded in the fleshy tissue of the pericarp.a plant whose life span extends for more than one but less than two years after germination.divided, for about half the length, into two parts.in two pairs;two-lipped,consisting of two plates or lamellae.having two cavities.divided, nearly to the base, into two parts.arranged in two rows or whorls.(=twice ternate, the three pinnae each divided into three pinnules.the expanded part of a leaf or petal.the trunk of a tree, below the lowest branch.a short branch; a spur shoot.a leaf-like structure, different in form from the foliage leaves and without an axillary bud, associated with an inflorescence or flower.a small bract-like structure borne singly or in pairs on the pedicel or calyx of a flower.a rigid trichome similar to a pig's bristle.a storage organ, usually underground, made up of a stem and leaf bases, the food reserves being stored in the inner, fleshy leaf bases.(=a small, deciduous bulb (or tuber) formed in the axil of a leaf or replacing flowers in an inflorescence, and functioning to propagate the plant vegetatively.having a blistered or puckered surface;a rough or prickly propagule consisting of a seed or fruit and associated floral parts or bracts.a vertical flange of tissue protruding from the base of the main trunk of a tree.

falling off early.growing in tufts.a protruding mass of hardened tissue, often formed after an injury but sometimes a regular feature of the plant,belonging to the calyx; with a well-developed calyx.a tube formed by fusion or cohesion of sepals.the sepals of one flower collectively.bell-shaped.with a longitudinal groove or channel.more or less grey-pubescent, hoary.the branches and foliage of a tree.shaped like, or aggregated into, a very small head.a dense cluster of sessile flowers. adj.a dry fruit formed from two or more united carpels and dehiscing at maturity to release the seeds.keeled.an organ (generally believed to be a modified foliar unit) at the centre of a flower, bearing one or more ovules and having its margins fused together or with other carpels to enclose the ovule(s) in an ovary, and consisting also of a stigma and usually a style.(=a dry, indehiscent, one-seeded fruit in which the seed coat is closely fused to the fruit wall (characteristic of grasses).a scale leaf, often associated with a vegetative propagating organ such as a rhizome or perennating bud.a spike in which the flowers are unisexual and without conspicuous perianth.having a narrow tail-like appendage.a thick, erect trunk, especially of cycads.the thread-like part of a pollinarium that connects the corpusculum with the pollinia, characteristic of Orchidaceae and Asclepiadaceae.the basic unit of plant structure consisting, at least when young, of a protoplast surrounded by a wall.directed, or developing, from the centre or axis outwards.directed, or developing, from the outside towards the centre or axis.thin, membranous scales or bracts; thin, dry unfertilised ovules among the fully developed seeds of a fruit.the part of an ovule to which the end of the stalk (funicle) is attached.papery.pollinated when the flower is open.pigment(s) constituting the green colouring matter of plants and absorbing radiant energy in photosynthesis.a thread-like structure in the nucleus of a cell, containing a linear sequence of genes.minutely ciliate.a monochasial, cymose inflorescence with flowers arising alternately from one side of an axis then the other.ash-grey, as of wood ash.(=(to) break open along a transverse line around the circumference. adj.the photosynthetic stem of a plant whose foliage leaves are absent or much reduced.a flattened, leaf-like photosynthetic stem not bearing leaves or scales.a major taxonomic rank, between order and division.latticed or pierced with apertures like a trellis.club-shaped.a narrow, stalk-like basal portion of a petal, sepal or bract.self-pollinated and setting fertile seed but the flowers never opening.a set of organisms produced from one parent by vegetative reproduction.a one-carpel unit of a schizocarp or lobed fruit, becoming separate at maturity. pl.coiled like a snail-shell.the sticking together of floral parts of the same whorl without organic fusion. adj.situated side by side; adjacent and on the same radius of an axis.a group or tuft of mucilaginous secretory hairs, often found near the base of the leaf lamina and on the calyx in Apocynaceae and Asclepiadaceae.covered with small, rounded or hillock-like elevations (pl. n.a little column; the central, persistent axis of a schizocarpic fruit; the axis of a cone or cone-like fruit.the lower part of an awn in grasses, when distinctly different in form from the upper part; a structure in Orchidaceae (=a tuft, especially of hairs on a seed. adj.a join or seam; the interfacing of two fused carpels in an ovary.flattened in one plane, either dorsally (bringing the front and back closer together) or laterally (bringing the sides closer together).coloured uniformly;folded together, with the fold-line along the long axis,a compound inflorescence consisting of two or more unit inflorescences, in which the main axis does not end in a flower but the axes of the branches do so.fused to another organ (or other organs) of the same kind.the part of an anther that connects the lobes.coming into contact; converging.see convolute.shaped like a heart (in three dimensions).leathery.a fleshy, swollen stem base, usually underground, in which food reserves are stored between growing seasons.bearing, or terminating in, one or more small horns.the petals of a flower collectively.fleshy ridges or outgrowths of tissue attached to the corolla tube, usually in the lobe sinuses.a ring of tissue arising from the corolla, perianth or filaments of a flower and standing between the perianth lobes and the stamens.the central part of a pollinarium, characteristic of Orchidaceae and Asclepiadaceae.the region of a stem or root surrounding the vascular cylinder but inside the epidermis.a racemose inflorescence in which the pedicels of the lower flowers are longer than those of the flowers above, bringing all flowers to about the same level.a rib; a midrib or midvein (when it is the only vein).ribbedthe midvein of a pinnule.the primary leaf (or one of two or more primary leaves) of an embryo.with small, rounded teeth; scalloped.minutely scalloped.curled.the part of a tree or shrub above the level of the lowest branch.brittle.(literally) a plant whose sexual reproductive parts are not conspicuous; a plant that produces spores, not seeds, in its sexual reproductive cycle;hooded; hood-shaped.an aerial stem;wedge-shaped.a small cup.nearly hemispherical, shaped like a cupola (dome).with curved parallel veins.a swollen floral axis on which several small flowers are borne.tapering into a sharp, rigid point.an inflorescence of unisexual flowers surrounded by a cup of involucral bracts, as inan inflorescence in which each flower, in turn, is formed at the tip of a growing axis and further flowers are formed on branches arising below it. adj.a diminutive cyme, usually few-flowered.a dry, indehiscent, one-seeded fruit formed from an inferior ovary.a stalked structure growing from a cell wall into the cell cavity, encrusted with calcium carbonate.

falling seasonally,angled downwards or forwards.more than once compound.spreading horizontally but then growing upwards.extending downwards beyond the point of insertion,angled downwards and curved or curled.in opposite pairs, with successive pairs borne at right angles to each other.of a constant number;bent abruptly downwards.breaking open at maturity to release the contents.(=tree-like in form but not in size.toothed.a small tooth; infinely toothed.flattened as if pressed down from the top or end.turned towards the right.having the stamens united into two groups, or all but one united in a group and one free.extremely thin and transparent.a cymose inflorescence with opposite branching below the flower which terminates each axis.forking into two equal branches resulting from division of the growing point.having the stamens and the carpels in separate flowers.a flowering plant whose embryo has two (rarely more) cotyledons (seed leaves).borne in pairs;branching from the axis or stalk like the fingers of a hand.appearing to be halved, as when half an organ is so much smaller than the other that it seems absent.of two different forms.having the male and female reproductive structures on separate plants.having two of the basic sets of chromosomes in the nucleus.a plate or rim of tissue, derived from the receptacle of a flower, occurring between whorls of floral parts.an actinomorphic flower in Asteraceae.of different colours;a partition (septum) within an ovary or fruit, derived by fusion of adjacent carpels.remote from the point of origin or attachment.arranged in two rows on opposite sides of a stem and thus in the same plane.widely spreading.the major taxonomic rank within the Plant Kingdom. Alternative name forsmall structures on the lower surface of a leaf in some woody dicotyledons, located in the axils of the primary veins and usually consisting of depressions partly enclosed by leaf tissue or hairs. sing.attached at or by the back.having structurally different upper and lower surfaces.a succulent fruit formed from one carpel, having the seed(s) enclosed in an inner stony layer of the fruit wall. adj.folded twice.

bearing stiff, stout, prickly hairs.pertaining to the soil.without glands.an appendage of a seed, usually rich in oil, attractive to fauna (especially ants) and hence an aid to dispersal by such fauna.inoval in outline, widest at the centre.having a broad, shallow notch at the apex.a young plant contained within an archegonium or seed.a large, multi-nucleate cell in which an egg nucleus is formed and fertilised, and in which an embryo begins to develop.an epidermal outgrowth.having a natural distribution confined to a particular geographical region.the innermost layer of the wall of a fruit;nutritive tissue in a seed, in angiosperms triploid and formed in the embryo sac after fertilisation, in gymnosperms haploid and derived from the sterile portion of the female gametophyte.sword-shaped.having a smooth margin, not dissected or toothed.pollinated by insects.short-lived.a whorl of bracts, just below a flower, looking like a second calyx.the outer layer of the wall of a fruit,on top of the bark,the outermost layer of cells of an organ, usually only one cell thick.borne on the petals.growing on leaves,a plant growing on, but not parasitic on, another plant (often loosely applied to plants, such as orchids, that grow on vertical rock faces).belonging to regions of low, irregular rainfall.bearing green leaves throughout the year.to one side; off centre.the outer layer of the wall of a pollen grain or spore.(=protruding,without stipules.outside the stamens.

sickle-shaped.a group of one to many genera believed to be related phylogenetically, usually clearly separable from other such groups; the major taxonomic group between genus and order.containing starch grains; mealy; resembling flour.a cluster, adj.having openings or translucent areas ('windows').the union of male and female gametes.the stalk of a stamen; a thread one or more cells thick.thread-like.minutely fimbriate.hollow throughout its length.(=limp; tending to wilt.long and very slender, like a whip-lash.(=bearing tufts of soft hairs or wool which tend to rub off and adhere in small masses.belonging to or associated with a flower.a grass flower, together with the lemma and palea that enclose it (often also applied to the individual small flowers in Cyperaceae and Asteraceae).the sexual reproductive structure of the angiosperms, typically consisting of gynoecium, androecium and perianth and the axis bearing these parts.leaf-like.a dry, dehiscent fruit formed from one carpel and dehiscing along the line of fusion of its edges.a non-woody plant other than a grass, sedge, rush,superficially resembling;pitted.a leaf, especially of a fern, cycad or palm.the seed-bearing structure in angiosperms, formed from the ovary after flowering.becoming shrub-like (woody).shrub-like.falling or withering away very early.dull yellowish brown or yellowish grey.(=spindle-shaped,

a cell or nucleus that fuses with another, of opposite sex, in sexual reproduction.a plant, or phase of a plant's life cycle, that bears gametes.seehaving the leaves or perianth segments united by their margins, at least at the base.having the sepals united by their margins, at least at the base.a bud or bud-like organ capable of reproducing the plant. plbent abruptly like a knee joint.the total complement of hereditary factors (genes) acquired by an organism from its parents and available for transmission to its offspring.a group of species believed to be related phylogenetically and usually clearly separable from other such groups, or a single species without close relatives; the major taxonomic rank between species and family. pl.a plant whose perennating buds are buried in the soil.glabrous, but obviously having previously had an indumentum.becoming glabrous.without hairs.a structure, within or on the surface of a plant, with a secretory function.bearing glands; functioning as a gland.blue-green in colour, with a whitish bloom (as in the juvenile leaves of manynearly spherical.a barbed hair or bristle.a small compact cluster. adj.glume-like, tending to be chaffy or membranous in texture.a bract in the inflorescence of a grass, sedge or similar plant.a fruit characteristic of grasses (=the two cells that open and close the stomata to allow gas exchange.a seed-bearing plant with the ovules borne on the surface of a sporophyll.having bisexual flowers and female flowers on separate plants.the carpels of a flower collectively.having bisexual and female flowers on the same planta stalk bearing the gynoecium above the level of insertion of the other floral parts., collective term for the staminal and interstaminal coronas, both of which are associated with the gynostegium. See

the growth form of a plant, comprising its size, shape, texture and orientation.the environment in which a plant lives.an elongate single-celled or multi-celled outgrowth from the epidermis, without vascular tissue.a plant adapted to living in highly saline habitats; a plant that accumulates high concentrations of salt in its tissues.having a single set of chromosomes in the nucleus (spear-shaped;an absorbing organ through which a parasite obtains chemical substances from its host.see capitulum.coiled;an organism which lives on and derives part of its nourishment from a different organism, and is partially self-supporting.any vascular plant that never produces a woody stem.not woody; soft in texture.=a fleshy indehiscent fruit derived from a single pistil, with an outer leathery rind and septate interior,having the adult parts of the plant (especially the leaves) distinctly different in form from the juvenile parts.producing flowers of two or more kinds with respect to their fertile organs,(=producing two kinds of spores (male and female, or microspores and megaspores).species in which flowers are similar except that the stigmas and anthers are held at different levels relative to each other, because style length differs between plants.the scar on a seed coat at the place where it was attached to its stalk during development.bearing coarse, rough, relatively long hairs.bearing stiff, bristly hairs.minutely hispid.covered with a greyish layer of very short, closely interwoven hairs.a single specimen or illustration designated by the author of a plant (or animal) name, at the time of original publication, which fixes the application of the name; the 'voucher specimen' of a name.having flowers of only one kind.producing only one kind of spore in the sexual reproductive cycle, and hence one gametophyte which produces both male and female gametes.species in which the flowers have stigmas and anthers held at the same level relative to each other on all plants.an organism on which a parasite lives and by which it is nourished (also applied, loosely, to a plant supporting an epiphyte).becoming translucent.translucent, almost like clear glass.an offspring of genetically different parents (in a Flora, usually applied where the parents are of different species).absorbing water (and undergoing movements or changes brought about by changes in water content).a cup or tube bearing floral parts above the base, and often above the top, of the ovary of a flower,the part of the stem of an embryo or young seedling below the cotyledonary node.a clearly differentiated layer of cells below the epidermis.

having an uneven number of pinnae, by virtue of having one terminal pinna.cut deeply, sharply and often irregularly (an intermediate condition between toothed and lobed).enclosed, not protruding.thickened;bent or curved inwards or upwards;variable in number; numerous;not opening at maturity.the epidermal appendages,folded inwards so that the outer faces of the margins are in contact.hardened.tissue covering the sorus of a fern; a hollow pollen-cup surrounding the stigma in Goodeniaceae.bent sharply upwards or forwards.the group or arrangement in which flowers are borne on a plant.of lower taxonomic rank than species.the grouping or arrangement in which fruits are borne on a plant.catching, and ostensibly feeding on, insects.attached to; arising from.a covering; one of the outer layers of tissue of an ovule.between two points.extension or growth from anan inflorescence that either arises in an internodal position, or one originally terminal but ceasing to be so when vegetative growth subsequently resumes from the stem apex.the portion of a stem between the level of insertion of two successive leaves or leaf pairs (or branches of an inflorescence).in Asclepiadaceae, fleshy lobes, often connate into a tube, attached to the base of the staminal column in the interstaminal areas. seesituated inside but close to the margin,between a petiole and the subtending stem.not indigenous; not native to the area in which it now occurs.a group of bracts enveloping a condensed inflorescence; a layer of tissue enveloping particular structures,involucre of bractlets surrounding a secondary inflorescence such as the base of an umbellule.rolled inwards;see(=a specimen which is a duplicate of the

evolutionary change in the chromosome set, expressed as changes in number and gross structure of the chromosomes; (more broadly), evolutionary relationships between taxa as indicated by karyotype differences.the gross morphology of the chromosome set, described in terms of number, length, centromere position,a ridge like the keel of a boat;(=low sand heath or sand plain sclerophyllous vegetation common in south-western W.A.

a lip;slashed into narrow, pointed lobes.tear-shaped,a gap or cavity.a thin, plate-like layer; middle lamella, the layer between the walls of two adjacent cells.composed of or arranged in layers or thin plates.the blade of a leaf.a viscous fluid exuded from the cut surfaces of the leaves and stems of certain plants.with broad partitions.turned sideways,one of the ultimate segments of a compound leaf.a specimen or illustration selected from among those cited with the original description to serve in place of a holotype where the holotype is missing or destroyed, or where no holotype was designated;a fruit characteristic of the families Mimosaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Fabaceae, formed from one carpel and either dehiscent along both sides, or indehiscent;a loosely-packed mass of cells in the bark of a woody plant, visible on the surface of a stem as a raised powdery spot, through which gaseous exchange occurs.shaped like a biconvex lens.covered with small, membranous scales.a climbing or twining plant (usually applied to woody climbers).woody, due to the deposition of lignin in cell walls.a woody swelling at the base of the shoot system below or just above the ground, containing adventitious buds from which new shoots develop if the top of the plant is cut off or burnt (common in the shrubby eucalypts ('mallee') and in many other fire-tolerant Australian shrubs).bearing a ligule; strap-shaped.a strap-shaped structure; a membranous or hairy appendage on the adaxial surface of a leaf, especially in grasses, at the junction between sheath and blade; a small adaxial appendage near the leaf base in some pteridophytes; the corolla limb in ray flowers of Asteraceae.the upper, free, spreading portion of a corolla or perianth that is connate at the base; the expanded portion of a sepal or petal above the claw.very narrow in relation to the length, and with the sides parallel.tongue-shaped.a plant that grows on the surface of unweathered rock.having small or indistinct lobes.(=one of a pair of tiny scales in a grass floret, between the lemma and the fertile parts of the flower, which may be reduced perianth segments.a legume having distinct constrictions or lines of abscission between the seeds and breaking into one-seeded segments when mature.the cavity of a plant cell.deeply lobed, with a large terminal lobe and smaller lateral ones.

=a growth habit in which several woody stems arise separately from a lignotuber (usually applied to shrubby eucalypts); a plant having the above growth habit; vegetation dominated by such plants.having small nipple-shaped projections.withering without falling off.occurring at or very close to the margin.attached by or at the middle,a plant body or cell lineage, formed by vegetative growth of the megaspore, that produces the female gametes of a heterosporous plant.the larger of the two kinds of sporangia produced in the sexual life cycle of a heterosporous plant.the larger of the two kinds of spores produced in the sexual life cycle of a heterosporous plant, giving rise to the female gametophyte.a specialised leaf upon which (or in the axil of which) one or more megasporangia are borne.the two-stage division of a diploid nucleus, occurring once in every sexual life cycle, in which gene recombination occurs and the number of chromosomes characteristic of the sporophyte plant is halved prior to the production of gametes.an insect-flower pollination syndrome involving bees.one segment of a fruit that breaks at maturity into units derived from the individual carpels.growing regions of a plant in which cells that have retained their embryonic characteristics, or have reverted to them secondarily, divide to produce new cells.the number of parts per whorl that characterises a particular flower (generally constant for the perianth whorls and less often for the whorl(s) of stamens also). adj.the fleshy portion of the wall of a succulent fruit inside the skin and outside the stony layer, if any, surrounding the seed(s).photosynthetic tissue of a green plant;a plant body or cell lineage, formed by vegetative growth of the microspore, that produces the male gametes of a heterosporous plant.a small leaf.a small canal through the integument(s) of an ovule, persisting as a pore in the seed coat.the smaller of the two kinds of sporangia produced in the sexual life cycle of a heterosporous plant.the smaller of the two kinds of spores produced in the sexual life cycle of a heterosporous plant, giving rise to the male gametophyte.a specialised leaf upon which (or in the axil of which) one or more microsporangia are borne.the central, and usually the most prominent, vein of a leaf or leaf-like organ.cylindrical but constricted at regular intervals like a string of beads.flowering and fruiting only once during its life span.a cymose inflorescence with the branches arising singly.having male and female reproductive organs in the same flower.a flowering plant whose embryo has only one cotyledon (seed leaf).having the male and female reproductive structures in separate flowers but on the same plant.derived from a single ancestral line.containing only one taxon of the next lower rank,a graded series of character states of an homologous character.the form and structure of an organism or part of an organism; the study of form and structure.actively moving; self-propelled.slimy material exuded by certain plants or plant organs. adj.slimy.a sharp, abrupt terminal point. adj.with a very small mucro; diminutive of mucronate., with the lobes held in several to many planes.rough on the surface; covered with short, hard tubercles or hard outgrowths of the epidermis.rough with minute, short, hard points.pointless, blunt, awnless.a symbiotic union between a fungus and a plant root.

introduced and reproducing itself without human assistance.boat-shaped.a gland that secretes nectar. adj.a specimen or illustration selected to serve in place of a holotype, where all of the material on which the name was originally based is missing or destroyed;=specialised, shield-like, basal fronds in some ferns (e.gsterile,, opening only at night.the level (transverse plane) of a stem at which one or more leaves arise.a name of a family, genus or species that has been formally accepted under thea name which, at the time of its publication, was superfluous (because it included the type of an earlier name which should have been adopted) or had already been applied to another plant; abbrev.a name published without a diagnosis or description of the entity to which it was applied, and without reference to either; abbrev.a name rejected in favour of a 'nomen conservandum'; abbrev.the central tissue of an ovule, within which the megaspore mother cell is formed.a hard, dry, indehiscent fruit formed from two or more carpels but containing only one seed.

cone-shaped but attached at the narrower end.similar in shape to lanceolate but attached at the narrower end.a three-dimensional shape, with short, parallel sides and rounded ends, as if composed of two hemispheres linked together by a short cylinder.a two-dimensional shape, having the length greater than the width but not many times greater, and the sides parallel.similar in shape to ovate but attached at the narrower end.similar in shape to ovate, but attached at the narrower end.non-functional but not reduced to a rudiment.reduced to a rudiment, or completely lacking.blunt or rounded at the apex, the converging edges separated by an angle greater than 90 degrees.a sheath, formed from two stipules, encircling the node in Polygonaceae.the development of a single organism,circular or nearly so.a taxonomic grouping of families believed to be closely related (sometimes a single family with no apparent close relatives); the major taxonomic rank between family and class.an opening or pore,the basal portion of a carpel or group of fused carpels, enclosing the ovule(s).a two dimensional shape, like a section through the long axis of an egg, and attached by the wider end.egg-shaped (in three dimensions).with ovules.a structure in a seed plant within which one or more megaspores are formed and which develops into a seed after fertilisation.bearing ovules,sterile structures on the placenta.

a condition intermediate between palmate and palmatifid, with the green tissue of the lamina completely divided into several segments, but the segments not fully separated at the base.the scientific study of pollen.fiddle-shaped.a compound raceme; an indeterminate inflorescence in which the flowers are borne on branches of the main axis or on further branches of these.indeterminate and much branched.a small, elongated protuberance on the surface of an organ, usually an extension of one epidermal cell. adj.a tuft of hairs on a fruit;, having non-overlapping but contiguous ranges.a group of taxa derived from a single ancestral taxon, but which does not contain all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor.sterile filaments in the fruiting bodies of non-vascular plants.an organism living on or in a different organism and deriving nourishment from it.a specimen or illustration, other than the holotype, isotype or one of the syntypes, that was cited with the original publication of a name.plant tissue consisting of mature, living cells that are relatively unspecialised in function.attached to the margins of a structure;having an even number of pinnae by virtue of having a pair in the terminal position.divided, almost to the base, into segments (commonly applied to a style or leaf).comb-like.the stalk of a flower. adj.the stalk of an inflorescence;transparent.actinomorphic,drooping;pencil-shaped; tufted like an artist's brush.(=a fruit with firm skin, pulpy interior, many seeds and a single locule; species epithet for a group of cucurbits including squash, zucchini and some pumpkins and gourds.maintain a dormant, vegetative state throughout non-growing seasons.a plant whose life span extends over more than two growing seasons.the calyx and corolla of a flower, especially where the two are similar.the wall of a fruit, developed from the ovary wall.nutritive tissue in an angiospermous seed, formed from the nucellus.remaining attached to the plant beyond the expected time of falling,a member of the inner whorl of non-fertile parts surrounding the fertile organs of a flower, usually soft and coloured conspicuously.like a petal; soft in texture and coloured conspicuously.the stalk of a leaf.the stalk of a leaflet.a bundle comprising several structures fused together; a group of connate carpels,(literally) a plant with conspicuous reproductive parts; a plant reproducing by seeds.the physical characteristics of an organism; the outward expression of characteristics conferred on an organism by its genotype.the tissue in the conducting system of a plant through which metabolites (products of chemical reactions in the plant) are transported.a very leaf-like, photosynthetic stem of a plant whose true leaves are much reduced.a leaf whose blade is much reduced or absent, and whose petiole and rachis have assumed the functions of the whole leaf.the arrangement of leaves on a stem (when spiral, often expressed quantitatively as the fraction of the circumference of the stem that separates two successive leaves).the evolutionary development of a plant group,an alternate name forhairy, the hairs soft and clearly separated but not sparse.a primary segment of the blade of a compound leaf. pl.divided into pinnae; once-compound.cut deeply (but not to midrib) into lobes that are spaced out along the axis (of the leaf).dissected down to the midrib but having the segments confluent with it.a leaflet of a bipinnate leaf.a free carpel or a group of fused carpels.a sterile pistil, often rudimentary.the central region of a stem, inside the vascular cylinder.a region, within an ovary, to which ovules are attached.the arrangement of placentas, and hence of ovules, within an ovary.ancestral or primitive.folded back and forth longitudinally like a fan.monocarpic but living for several years before flowering.like a feather; with fine hairs branching from a central axis.the portion of an embryo that gives rise to the shoot system (as distinct from the root system) of a plant.an air-vessel; an organ containing aerenchyma;a leguminous fruit.the microspores of seed plants; the powdery mass of microspores shed from anthers.a microspore of a seed plant, or the partially developed gametophyte formed from it.a cavity, in an anther, in which pollen is formed.the transfer of pollen from the male organ, where it is formed, to the receptive region of a female organ,the complex structure found in flowers of Asclepiadaceae and Orchidaceae where the pollen masses of the two adjacent anther-lobes (thecae) are united for dispersal as a unit. The pollinarium consists of two pollinia, attached by caudicles to a central corpusculum. pl.pollen-mass, the aggregation of all the pollen of one anther-lobe (theca) into one unit for transfer in pollination. pl.with bisexual and male flowers on some plants, and bisexual and female flowers on others.with bisexual flowers and unisexual flowers of both sexes on the same plant.having bisexual and unisexual flowers on the same or different plants.having more than two distinct morphological variants.with free petals.composed of members that originated, independently, from more than one evolutionary line.having more than two of the basic sets of chromosomes in the nucleus.containing more than one taxon of the next lower rank,a fleshy (false) fruit, formed from an inferior ovary, in which the receptacle or hypanthium has enlarged to enclose the true fruit.appearing bitten off at the end.a hard, pointed outgrowth from the surface of a plant, involving several layers of cells but not containing a vein.trailing or spreading along the ground but not rooting at the nodes.able to reproduce vegetatively from the shoot system,a structure with the capacity to give rise to a new plant,a leaf formed at the base of a shoot, usually smaller than those formed subsequently.lying flat on the ground.having the male sex organs maturing before the female;a gametophyte body, especially in bryophytes, ferns and related plants.having the female sex organs maturing before the male;near to the point of origin or attachment.having a whitish, waxy, powdery bloom on the surface.a compact inflorescence of several to many small flowers which simulates a single flower.false; apparent but not genuine.covered with minute, soft, erect hairs.covered with short, soft, erect hairs.appearing as though dusted over with powder.cushion- or pad-shaped, resembling a pulvinus.a swelling at the base of the stalk of a leaf or leaflet, often glandular or responsive to touch.marked with dots.minutely dotted.ending in a stiff, sharp point; having an acrid taste or smell.covered with small pustule- or blister-like elevations.the 'stone' (endocarp plus seed) of a succulent fruit.

an indeterminate inflorescence in which a main axis produces a series of flowers on lateral stalks, the oldest at the base and the youngest at the top. adj.secondary raceme in a compound raceme or umbellate inflorescence.(=(=the portion of an embryo that gives rise to the root system of a plant.the part of the stalk of an anatropous ovule that is fused along the side of the ovule.needle-like crystals that occur in bundles in the vacuoles of some plant cells.a zygomorphic flower in Asteraceae.the axis of a flower (=curved or curled downwards or backwards.bent sharply downwards or backwards.seekidney-shaped.a longitudinal partition in an ovary, formed between parietal placentas.twisted through 180 degrees,forming a network.a hook-like structure to which another structure is tethered;bent, and pointing away from the apex.with a very blunt and slightly notched apex.rolled downwards or backwards;seeseea compound cyme with the lateral branches developed alternately on one side and then the other.a thread-like, unicellular absorbing structure occurring in the vascular plants, in gametophytes of ferns and some related plants.an underground stem, usually growing horizontally.quadrangular, with the lateral angles obtuse.unit of the axial system of a plant which is usually underground, does not bear leaves, tends to grow downwards and is typically derived from the radicle of the embryo.a short, erect, swollen structure at the junction of the root and shoot systems of a plant (loosely: the root system).beaked.clustered into a rosette,circular and flattened,poorly developed and not functional.deeply wrinkled.covered with minute wrinkles.mottled in appearance,deeply lobed and with the lobes slanted away from the apex.a slender, prostrate or trailing stem which produces roots and sometimes erect shoots at its nodes.

a pouch or cavity; seepouched.shaped like an arrow-head.a dry, indehiscent fruit with its wall expanded into a wing.an organism deriving its nourishment from dead organic matter and usually lacking chlorophyll.slightly or minutely rough to the touch, minutely scabrous.slightly rough; diminutive of scabrous.(=having a ladder-like pattern.a reduced or rudimentary leaf,climbing.the stem-like, flowering stalk of a plant with radical or rosulate leaves.dry and membranous.a dry fruit formed from more than one carpel but breaking apart into 1-carpel units when ripe.mechanical tissue with heavily thickened cell walls.a cell (usually elongated) with a strongly lignified wall.a plant whose leaves (or stems, if leafless) are hard in texture, usually having thick cuticle and containing many fibres.with leaves stiffened by sclerenchyma.irregular lines on the bark of some eucalypts, being the old tunnels burrowed by moth larvae between bark layers and exposed when the outer layer falls.with all the parts grouped on one side or turned to one side (applied especially to the grouping of flowers in an inflorescence or stamens in a flower).a propagating organ formed in the sexual reproductive cycle of gymnosperms and angiosperms, consisting of a protective coat enclosing an embryo and food reserves.a part or sub-division of a divided organ; one of a group of similar organs named collectively,pinnate venation in which the secondary veins branch just inside the margin, one of the branches terminating at the margin, the other joining the superadjacent secondary vein.a member of the (usually green) outer whorl of non-fertile parts surrounding the fertile organs of a flower.looking like sepals,divided internally by partitions., the valves or backs of the carpels breaking away leaving the septa intact.a partition. pl.in rows or whorls.silky; covered with silky hairs.toothed, with asymmetrical teeth pointing forward.finely serrate.without a stalk,a bristle or stiff hair;bearing setae.covered with bristles.covered with fine bristles; resembling a fine bristle.the lower portion of a grass leaf, clasping the stem; one of the wing-like extensions to the margins of the petiole which wrap around and enclose the stem;a woody plant less than 5 metres high, either without a distinct main axis, or with branches persisting on the main axis almost to its base.doubly curved in opposite directions like the letter S.containing silica.a short siliqua, not more than twice as long as its width.a dry, dehiscent fruit formed from a superior ovary of two carpels, with two parietal placentas and divided into two loculi by a false septum between the placentas.undivided;turned towards the left.with deep, wave-like depressions along the margin.a notch or depression in the margin of an organ.a spicate inflorescence with a stout, often succulent axis.like a spathe; with a spathe.a large bract ensheathing an inflorescence.(=a taxon comprising one or more populations of individuals capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring.an unbranched, indeterminate inflorescence in which the flowers are without stalks. adj.a unit of the inflorescence in grasses, sedges and some other monocotyledons, consisting of one to many flowers and associated glumes.a stiff, sharp-pointed structure, formed by modification of a plant organ,ending in a spine; modified to form a spine.bearing spines.bearing spores (or pollen).the stalk of a sporangium;a structure within which spores are formed. pl.a simple propagule, produced either sexually or asexually, and consisting of one or a few cells.a fruiting body containing sporangia.a specialised leaf-like organ on which one or more sporangia are borne.a plant, or phase of a life cycle, that bears the spores formed during the sexual reproductive cycle.a tubular pouch at the base of a perianth part, often containing nectar.one of the male organs of a flower, consisting typically of a stalk (filament) and a pollen-bearing portion (anther). adj.a sterile stamen, often rudimentary, sometimes modified,a band of tissue around the apex of the hypanthium in a eucalypt flower, on which the stamens are inserted.(=star-shaped; consisting of star-shaped cells.the main axis or a branch of the main axial system of a plant, developed from the plumule of the embryo and typically bearing leaves.the pollen-receptive surface of a carpel or group of fused carpels, usually sticky.a small stalk;stipule-like appendage at the base of a leaflet (in unifoliolate leaves, inserted on the petiole, not on the stem). pl.stalked; borne on a stipe;one of a pair of appendages at the bases of leaves in many dicotyledons.a prostrate or trailing stem that produces roots at the nodes.having stolons; trailing over the soil surface and rooting at the nodes.a pore; a pore in the epidermis of a leaf or other aerial organ, providing for gaseous exchange between the tissues and the atmosphere. pl.a region of dehiscence,a plusmn isodiametric sclereid.straw coloured.striped with parallel longitudinal lines or ridges.with sharp, stiff hairs which are appressed to the surface.minutely strigose.a 'cone' consisting of sporophylls borne close together on an axis.seea cushion-like swelling,an elongated part of a carpel, or group of fused carpels, between the ovary and the stigma.a disc-like enlargement of the base of the style.narrow and tapering gradually to a fine point.grooved; furrowed.a line of junction between two fused organs; a line of dehiscence.a multiple fruit with a hollow centre,(=an androecium with the anthers of the stamens cohering.a group ofa structure consisting of several united fruits, usually fleshy.one of two or more specimens cited by the author at the time of publication of a name if no holotype was designated; any one of two or more specimens simultaneously designated as types;

a complex, aromatic compound occurring in the bark of many shrubs and trees.producing tannins.the main, descending root of a plant that has a single, dominant root axis.a group or category, at any level, in a system for classifying plants or animals. pl.a slender climbing organ formed by modification of a part of a plant,a perianth segment in a flower in which all the perianth segments are similar in appearance.cylindrical or nearly so; circular in cross-section.at the apex or distal end.in groups of three;of or on the ground;a seed coat.a group of four; four pollen grains remaining fused together at maturity,the vegetative body of a plant that is not differentiated into organs such as stems and leaves,a response, by movement or growth, to a mechanical stimulus,a modified plant organ, especially a stem, that is stiffened and terminates in a pungent point.a branched inflorescence in which the main axis is indeterminate and the lateral branches determinate in their growth.minutely tomentose.a covering of dense, matted, woolly hairs. adj.seea transverse partition dividing or partly dividing a cavity.applied to parts of a pollinarium, comprising the central part or corpusculum, and the arm-like structures or caudicles uniting the corpusculum with the pollinia.having four straight unequal sides.a woody plant at least 5 metres high, with a main axis the lower part of which is usually unbranched.an epidermal outgrowth,branching almost equally into three parts.deeply divided into three parts.having three leaves.triangular in cross-section and obtusely-angled.divided into three parts.folded three times.triangular in cross-section and acutely-angled; with three distinct longitudinal ridges.arranged in three rows on a stem, each row in the same plane.heterostylous species having three style lengths (short, mid, long), the flowers of any one plant having styles of the same length.shaped like a bricklayer's trowel,with an abruptly transverse end, as if cut off.a storage organ formed by swelling of an underground stem or the distal end of a root.a small wart-like outgrowth.covered with tubercles.swollen;swollen; inflated.the thin membranous or fibrous outer layers.top-shaped, obconical.swollen due to high water content.an over-wintering vegetative bud or specialised short shoot with modified leaves, arising from the stem, often near ground level.a designated representative (standard) for a plant name.

a racemose inflorescence in which all the individual flower stalks arise in a cluster at the top of the peduncle and are of about equal length.secondary umbel in a compound umbellate inflorescence.terminating in a hooked point.wavy,having one leaf.bearing only male or only female reproductive organs.fused together.urn-shaped.a small bladder; a membranous bladder-like sac enclosing an ovary or fruit.

a portion of an organ that has fragmented;specialised for conduction of fluids;a strand of vascular tissue.a water-retaining outer layer of the aerial roots of some epiphytes, especially orchids.a membranous covering; a veil.the arrangement of veins in a leaf.the arrangement of unexpanded leaves in a bud.varnished.covered with wart-like outgrowths, warted.covered with closely spaced, minute wart-like outgrowths.a whorl or circular arrangement of similar parts around an axis.a false whorl of opposed cymes.arranged in one or more whorls; a false whorl of flowers in a pair of opposite dense cymes, especially in Lamiaceae.a bladder-like sac or cavity filled with gas or liquid.a capillary tube formed from a series of open-ended cells in the water-conducting tissue of a plant.reduced from the ancestral condition and no longer functional.=shaggy with long, weak hairs.

coastal vegetation on sandy acidic soils, in south-eastern Queensland.a ring of leaves, bracts or floral parts borne at the same level on an axis.a membranous expansion of a fruit or seed, which aids dispersal; a thin flange of tissue extended beyond the normal outline of a stem or petiole; a lateral petal of a flower in Fabaceae.a plant having structural features usually associated with plants of arid habitats (such as hard or succulent leaves) but not necessarily drought-tolerant.a drought-tolerant plant.the tissue, in a vascular plant, that conducts water and mineral salts from the roots to the leaves.(=



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